High blood pressure / hypertension Diagnosis and individual treatment in the practice of Prof. Dr. Bernhard Ludvik in Vienna
What is the normal blood pressure?
Ideally, the blood pressure is below 130/80 mm Hg. Diagnosis of high blood pressure or hypertension is established when the blood pressure is above 140/90 mmHg after repeated measurements at rest. Then treatment for hypertension must be started. If the diagnosis is unclear, a 24-hour blood pressure measurement can also be carried out.
What are the consequences of high blood pressure / hypertension?
Untreated or inadequately treated hypertension can lead to stroke, heart attacks, and kidney failure. In the case of critical increases in blood pressure such as with pheochromocytoma, headache and visual disturbances may occur.
What types of high blood pressure / hypertension are there?
There is no identifiable cause for essential (primary) hypertension. However, there is a genetic susceptibility, and it occurs especially in overweight/obese subjects and, especially, in connection with type 2 diabetes. Secondary hypertension can be caused by narrowing of the kidney vessels and by overproduction of hormones (hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, hyperaldosteronism). If secondary hypertension is suspected, e.g. in the case of high blood pressure that is difficult to control, an endocrinological evaluation must be carried out.
How is high blood pressure / hypertension treated?
The first step is to reduce overweight / obesity and consum a diet with less salt and limit alcohol consumption. Sufficient physical activity is also important. Drug therapy for hypertension includes different classes of blood pressure medications, which are used individually and in combination.
High blood pressure / hypertension
- Essential hypertension
- Secondary hypertension
- Lifestyle measures for hypertension
- Drug treatment of hypertension
- Hypertension that is difficult to control