Thyroid disorders Competent treatment in the practice of Prof. Dr. Bernhard Ludvik in Vienna
The function of the thyroid gland
The thyroid gland controls the metabolism of almost all organs with its hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The release of these hormones is controlled by the pituitary gland (pituitary gland) by TSH. These three hormones are routinely measured to assess the function of the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones have an effect on the heart and circulation and thus regulate heart rate and blood pressure.
The increased thyroid function (hyperthyroidism) is characterized by increased thyroid hormones T3 and T4 and decreased TSH. Symptoms include a rapid pulse (tachycardia), weight loss, tremor, restlessness and a tendency to diarrhea. The possible causes are either hot lumps or an autoimmune disease, Graves’ disease. Even with a subacute inflammation (thyroiditis de Quervain), hyperthyroidism can occur temporarily. The decreased thyroid function (hypothyroidism) can be recognized by decreased thyroid hormones T3 and T4 and increased TSH. It usually arises from an autoimmune disease in the sense of chronic inflammation, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Reduced heart rate, fatigue, weight gain, hair loss and dry skin can be the consequence.
Neoplasms of the thyroid gland
The goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that occurs mainly in iodine-deficient areas. It can lead to a visible enlargement of the thyroid gland and eventually to breathing and swallowing problems. Lumps can be caused by adenomas, cysts and, rarely, thyroid cancer. With adenomas, a distinction is made between hot ones, which produce thyroid hormones in an uncontrolled manner, and cold ones. The latter must always be examined for any malignancy using a fine needle biopsy.
Treatment of thyroid disease
If you are suffer from hypothyroidism, thyroid hormones are administered, which are taken in the morning, on an empty stomach and half an hour before a meal. In the case of hyperfunction, thyrostatic drug therapy is initially carried out, followed by surgery or radioiodine therapy, if necessary. If necessary, adenomas are treated with an operation; in the case of thyroid cancer, radioiodine therapy is usually carried out after the operation.
Diseases of the thyroid gland
- Thyroid adenoma
- Grave’s disease
- Thyroiditis de Quervain
- Thyroid cancer